By Menzies, Bruce Keith; Ng, C. W. W.; Simons, N. E
CD comprises pupil versions of the OASYS software program programs 'FREW' and 'Safe'.
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Extra info for A short course in soil-structure engineering of deep foundations, excavations and tunnels
Most abundant and significant features are stalactites, stalagmites and flowstones of calcite. These may be dated with uranium series methods, Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved. CHAPTER 3 DEPOSITED GROUND: SEDIMENTARY ROCKS thus establishing minimum ages for the host caves. They also contain paleomagnetic records. Their oxygen and carbon isotope ratios and trapped organic materials may record long-term changes in climate and vegetation above ground that can be dated with great precision.
This texture is indicative of rapid cooling. Most igneous rocks that display this texture are volcanic in origin and often display numerous small spherical or ellipsoidal cavities as vesicles. These are produced by gas bubbles trapped in the solidifying rock. A good example of an aphanitic igneous rock is basalt. Porphyritic – two distinct sizes of grains are present. The larger, well formed crystals are referred to as phenocrysts; the smaller crystals are referred to as the matrix or groundmass.
This is based on composition (reflected in the rock’s mineralogy) and texture that can only be deduced from detailed petrological examination in the laboratory. Indeed, even the most experienced geologist will only use about 12 names when identifying igneous rocks in the field. Civil engineers only need to use this limited vocabulary since this is sufficient to describe the principal behavioural characteristics of the rock. In this chapter the following are described: . Where igneous rocks come from – the origin of magma and how it migrates within the crust is the key to understanding the nature of different types of igneous rock, igneous intrusions and behaviour of volcanoes.
A short course in soil-structure engineering of deep foundations, excavations and tunnels by Menzies, Bruce Keith; Ng, C. W. W.; Simons, N. E