By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker
▓ Book's significant other Website
▓ Abstraction is a primary mechanism underlying either human and synthetic conception, illustration of data, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a very important position in lots of disciplines, particularly laptop Programming, common and synthetic imaginative and prescient, advanced structures, man made Intelligence and computing device studying, paintings, and Cognitive Sciences. This ebook first presents the reader with an outline of the notions of abstraction proposed in a variety of disciplines through evaluating either commonalities and modifications. After discussing the characterizing houses of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to catch them. This version makes the concept of abstraction simply acceptable via the creation of a suite of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout assorted domain names and purposes. it's the effect of abstraction in synthetic Intelligence, advanced structures and desktop studying which creates the center of the e-book. A common framework, according to the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic strength is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based prognosis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
∙ Collects, describes and compares a number of ways to abstraction proposed within the literature of varied fields
∙ Discusses why abstraction performs a key position in AI artifacts, utilizing concrete examples, equivalent to cartographic generalization and human/robot interaction
∙ presents a conceptualization framework to layout powerful systems
▒ Book's Preface
When we begun scripting this publication we have been conscious of the complexity of the task,
but we didn't think that it will take us nearly 3 years to accomplish it.
Furthermore, throughout the research and comparability of the literature from different
fields, it basically emerged that vital effects were completed, yet that much
more very important ones are nonetheless out of achieve. Then, the spirit of the e-book replaced, by
itself, from the meant review of the prior to a stimulus for the long run. We
would be at liberty if the reader, rather than being content material with the guidelines we propose,
would take them as a motivation and start line to head past them.
We current a wide number of works on abstraction in numerous disciplines;
nonetheless many correct contributions to the sphere were unavoidably left out,
owing to the sheer volume of pages they might fill. We ask for forgiveness for the missing
In this publication we current a version of abstraction, the KRA version, yet this is often not
the center of the e-book. It has a constrained scope and serves major reasons: on the
one hand it indicates that numerous prior proposals of abstraction theories have a
common root and will be dealt with within a unified framework, and, at the different, it
offers a computational surroundings for acting abstraction by means of making use of a suite of
available, domain-independent operators (programs). in truth, there's nonetheless a gap
between normal abstraction theories, normally dependent logical formulations of representation
changes, and urban ways that seriously depend upon particular domain
characteristics. The KRA version is intended to be anything in among: the
domain-independence of the abstraction operators achieves either generality (it can
cover a large spectrum of purposes and alertness domains), and synergy (by
instantiating in numerous contexts a few code written only one time).
Independently of the version, we think that the elemental principles on which it relies
are extra very important than the version itself. those rules are definitely controversial; some
reader could imagine that our view of abstraction is strictly what he/she has always
looked for, while another may perhaps imagine that abstraction is completely something
else. either reactions are welcome: what issues is to set off curiosity within the subject
and stimulate extra research.
The ebook isn't meant to be a textbook: it truly is precise to scientists operating on
or utilizing abstraction strategies, with no problem of fields. computing device scientists,
Artificial Intelligence researchers, artists, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, and curious minds can learn the booklet. a few components are extra formalized, and so they may
look advanced first and foremost sight. even though, we think that the best a part of the
content is graspable by way of intuition.
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Extra info for Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems
Finally, abstraction offers dynamic realization, in the sense that it manifests itself in a variety of ways that makes it difficult to define it univocally. Similar to the notion of category is the one of concept. , the process aimed at identifying the “essence” in the sensorial input . An interesting discussion concerns the comparison between abstraction theories in classical Artificial Intelligence (where Barsalou sees them based on predicate calculus), and in connectionism. Barsalou identifies an abstraction as an attractor for a statistical combination of properties; here the abstraction is represented by the active units that characterize the attractor.
Even if trying to link abstract knowledge to perception may seem a counterintuitive approach, we will see in Chap. 6 that this view can provide the basis for a model of abstraction well suited to capture relevant aspects of concept representation. Actually, Goldstone and Barsalou convincingly argue that there are mechanisms shared between cognition and perception that allow abstraction to enter the picture; for instance, selectivity lets the attention concentrate on particular aspects of a perception, blurring (involuntary or purposeful) removes details from further processing, and object-to-variable binding allows perception to have an internal structure as concepts do.
Miles Smith and Smith  address the issue of abstraction in databases directly. They say that “an abstraction of some system is a model of that system in which certain details are deliberately omitted. The choice of the details to omit is made by considering both the intended application of the abstraction and also its users. ” As in some systems there may be too many relevant details for a single abstraction, a hierarchy can be built up, in which some details are temporarily ignored at any given level.
Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker