By Clark Alan
Aces High serves to remind us that, if now not a wholly scrupulous baby-kisser, nor an ideal husband, Alan Clark fairly used to be an exceptional army historian.
There has advanced whatever of a fantasy in regards to the conflict within the air among 1914-1918. the parable is going that, whereas within the dust and gore of the trenches under any idealism and chivalry speedy sputtered and died, within the purer air above the final noble heroes battled in one-to-one dogfights like knights of previous. it's a delusion that Clark shoots down in flames, with attribute iconoclasm.
One of the nice RFC aces used to be Mick Mannock, famed for his stumble upon with a coaching teacher, out in a formation of six, with 5 of his very green-horned scholars. Mannock first shot down the trainer after which ruthlessly pursued all of the newcomers and shot them down one after the other. This wasn't chivalry, it used to be struggle, and even supposing extra based to monitor, it was once every piece as deadly as Passchendaele.
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Additional info for Aces High. The War in the Air over the Western Front 1914-1918
Draw line from index crossing through frequency in MHz to right scale. Read KED loss (above LOS loss) in dB at right scale If H is above knife edge use left side; if H is below knife edge use right side. 36 Electronic Warfare Pocket Guide Graph & Nomograph Instructions Atmospheric loss (p18): Draw vertical line up from Frequency to curve, then left to loss per km. Rain & Fog loss (p 19): identify appropriate curve from Table. Draw line from frequency up to curve, then left to Attenuation per km.
Receiver system NF (p21): Draw vertical line from NR Draw horizontal line from GP + NP − L2 . lines cross on applicable degradation value curve. Active decoy RCS (p33): Draw up from frequency to Gain line, then left to Decoy RCS Electronic Warfare Pocket Guide List of Symbols PT Transmitter power in dBm PR Received Power in dBm GT Transmitting Antenna gain in dB GR Receiving Antenna gain in dB GM Antenna main beam peak gain GS Antenna average side lobe gain L Propagation loss (from any model) F Frequency in MHz D Link distance in km d distance input to KED nomograph d1 distance from XMTR to knife edge d2 distance from knife edge to RCVR hT height of transmit antenna in meters hR height of receiving antenna in meters FZ Fresnel zone distance in km S Sensitivity in dBm λ Wavelength in meters c Speed of light (3 × 108 m/sec) R Range RE Effective range RJ Range to jammer Range to target RT σ Radar cross section τ Pulse width k Boltzman’s constant TS System temperature in ◦ Kelvin 37 38 Electronic Warfare Pocket Guide List of Abbreviations EW ES EP ARM HEW LPI RWR LOS KED XMTR RCVR kTB RFSNR SNR BW PA LHC RHC ERP RCS PRF MDS NF PLL IFFM Electronic Warfare Electronic Support Electronic Protection Anti-radiation missile High energy weapons Low probability of intercept Radar Warning Receiver Line of sight Loss Knife Edge Diffraction Loss Transmitter Receiver Thermal noise in receiver in dBm Predetection signal to noise ratio Output signal to noise ratio Receiver effective bandwidth Preampliﬁer Left hand circular (polarization Right hand circular (polarization) Effective radiated power Radar cross section Pulse repeitition frequency Minimum discernable signal Noise ﬁgure Phase locked loop FM improvement factor 4 Electronic Warfare Pocket Guide EW Deﬁnitions EW is the art and science of denying an enemy the beneﬁts of the electromagnetic spectrum while preserving them for friendly forces.
59 L4 λ2 L Active decoys RCS(dBsm) = 39 + Gain − 20 log(F) L & λ in meters, F in MHz Effective RCS of decoy (dBs m) RCS of constant gain decoy 80 60 40 20 10 70 dB Ga 60 dB in Ga 50 dB in G a 40 dB in Ga 30 dB in Ga in 100 1000 10,000 Frequency in MHz RCS of primed decoy (ﬁxed ERP) repeating radar signal RADAR RD ERPR D ERPJ RCS(dBsm) = 71 + ERPJ − ERPR + 20 log(RD ) ERP (both) in dBm, RD in km 34 Electronic Warfare Pocket Guide Decibels (dB) N (dB) = 10 log10 (N) Where N is a ratio Special case for voltage ratio, N(dB) = 20 log10 (N) N(not in dB) = 10[N(dB)/10] = AntiLog[N(dB)/10] A(dB) ± B (dB) = C(dB) A(dBm) ± B(dB) = C(dBm) A(dBm) – B(dBm) = C(dB) A(dB) ± 10 Log(number not in dB) A(dB) ± 20 Log(number not in dB) when square of number goes into eqn dBm dBW dBsm dBi dB value of Pwr/1 mW dB value of Pwr/1 watt dB value of area/1 sm dB value of ant gain/ isotropic N(dBm) = N(dBW) + 30 dB Signal Strength Signal Strength RCS & Ant.
Aces High. The War in the Air over the Western Front 1914-1918 by Clark Alan