By Stephen J. Simpson and Jeacuterocircme Casas (Eds.)
This most up-to-date quantity during this sequence includes articles at the body structure of human and animal disorder vectors.
* Contributions from the major researchers in entomology * Discusses the physiological variety in bugs * contains in-depth stories with precious details for a number of entomology disciplines
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Nervous or endocrine signals) and involve different physiological processes, which modulate the behaviour of the insect. The most widely recognized physiological determinants affecting the response to host signals include nutritional state (or feeding condition), moulting, reproductive state (mating and oviposition) and the circadian cycle. These factors not only determine whether or not insects respond to a given signal, but also how they respond. As we will discuss below, the identical stimulus may be attractive our repellent depending on the physiological state of the insect.
These findings reveal several important features of thermal sensing in haematophagous bugs. First, the insects can actively control the position of their antennae according to the apparent size of a thermal source. Second, the insects can integrate thermal information from both antennae in such a way that enables them to maintain a constant angle. This finding confirms previous findings from orientation experiments (Wigglesworth and Gillet, 1934a; Flores and Lazzari, 1996). Third, these insects integrate proprioceptive inputs (probably from mechanoreceptors located at the joints of the antennae) with thermal information to produce the appropriate motor output to control antennal movements.
One possibility is that the insect recognizes the spatial pattern of thermoreceptor stimulation along the length of the antenna or even the body. The insect does not need to create a thermal ‘‘image’’; rather, it must simply recognize which side of the antenna (or body) is receiving more stimulation. This example thus demonstrates the importance of taking into account the orientation mechanism in determining the nature of the biological signal detected and how the sensory information is used. 8 Thermal sensing in kissing bugs As mentioned above, triatomine bugs rely on various sensory cues to search for a host.
Advances in Insect Physiology by Stephen J. Simpson and Jeacuterocircme Casas (Eds.)