By Dr. Robert Guderian (auth.)
Emissions of gaseous air pollution have elevated within the final years even with elevated controls and crisis for air caliber. Predictions of destiny improvement additionally point out extra bring up in emissions has to be anticipated. From an intensive research of gas use in traditional strength vegetation in and for household heating, Brocke and Schade (1971) and Schade (1975) are expecting that sulfur dioxide (S02) emissions within the Federal Republic of Germany increases from '3. five million t in 1969, over four. 2 million t in 1973, to four. 6 million t in 1980. Rasch (1971) predicts that emission of hydrogen chloride (HCI) from burning of wastes increases from a gift 8000 t/year to approximately one hundred thousand t in 1980. Emission of gaseous fluoride compounds, in North Rhine Westphalia by myself, are anticipated to extend from 7500 t in 1969 to 8800 t in 1985 (MAGS, 1972). comparable predic tions have additionally been made within the united states (Heggestadt and Heck, 1971). A doubling of S02 emissions from oil and especially coal-fired energy crops is predicted among 1960 and 1980 (Wood, 1968; Lewis et aI. , 1974). whilst it really is thought of that overall regulate of air toxins is technically and particularly economically very unlikely, it is vital that, sooner or later, emissions are managed inside of a technical and fiscal framework to such an quantity that ambient pollutant concentrations close to the floor current no chance to guy or his surroundings (BImSchG, 1974).
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Extra info for Air Pollution: Phytotoxicity of Acidic Gases and Its Significance in Air Pollution Control
01 ReI. humidity 90% ReI. 03 " Average of six S analyses. b Necrotic area in % of total leaf area; average of six plants. 38 Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Gaseous Air Pollutants intensity. Effects of 60 and 80% relative humidity on ozone injury did not differ under 30000 lux, but led respectively to 66 and 79% leaf necrosis under 20000 lux. The importance of free water in the form of dew or rain droplets on leaves is still not entirely clear. Etching and acid burning have been observed on plants after rain in areas with high S02 concentrations (Guderian and Stratmann, 1962).
0 lijJht off Fig. 19. Daily variations in the size of the stomatal pores of lettuce grown under various light conditions (in units of measure = ME). , 1963). In further research, Dugger and Ting (1968) showed that PAN sensitivity is controlled by a light-mediated system in the 660 nm and 700 nm range and that plants were more sensitive under 660 nm than under 700 nm. The connection between pollutant uptake and stomatal movement has already been mentioned. In experiments on lettuce under various light fields, Vogel (1960) has shown that the spectral composition of electromagnetic radiation has a strong influence on the degree of opening of stomata and rhythm of stomatal movement (Fig.
75 ',. 21. Influence of the concentration of various glucose solutions on the sensitivity of field bean leaves to sulfur dioxide This connection between carbohydrate content of leaves and plant sensitivity is demonstrated with the following experiment on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum, Sterlingcross Fl) exposed to HCI (Table 8). 4 mg HCljm 3 air for 4 h, leaflets of plants held in darkness (dark plants) for 36 h before exposure showed 25% necrosis, while leaflets with a normallightjdark rhythm (light plants) were not injured.
Air Pollution: Phytotoxicity of Acidic Gases and Its Significance in Air Pollution Control by Dr. Robert Guderian (auth.)