By Geoffrey Hughes
This can be the one encyclopedia and social historical past of swearing and foul language within the English-speaking global. It covers a number of the social dynamics that generate swearing, foul language, and insults within the complete diversity of the English language. whereas the emphasis is on American and British English, the several significant international kinds, equivalent to Australian, Canadian, South African, and Caribbean English also are coated. A-Z entries disguise the entire diversity of swearing and foul language in English, together with interesting info at the heritage and origins of every time period and the social context within which it chanced on expression. different types comprise blasphemy, obscenity, profanity, the categorization of ladies and races, and modal kinds, akin to the ritual insults of Renaissance "flyting" and sleek "sounding" or "playing the dozens." Entries conceal the ancient size of the language, from Anglo-Saxon heroic oaths and the miraculous strength of medieval profanity, to the stern censorship of the Renaissance and the colourful, sleek language of the streets. Social components, reminiscent of stereotyping, xenophobia, and the dynamics of ethnic slurs, in addition to age and gender alterations in swearing also are addressed, besides the most important taboo phrases and the complicated and altering nature of non secular, sexual, and racial taboos.
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Extra info for An Encyclopedia of Swearing: The Social History of Oaths, Profanity, Foul Language, And Ethnic Slurs in the English-speaking World
181). However, in a contemporary reference in Chaucer’s Pardoner’s Tale, during a denunciation of gambling, dice are referred to as “the bicched bones” (l. 656). Henry Brinklow, a savage polemicist of the Reformation, referred sarcastically to his Catholic opponents in 1542 as being “as chast as a sawt bitch,” or “as pure as a randy bitch” (The Complaynt of Roderick Mors, xxiv, 63). Male application is not exclusively modern, being recorded from about 1500. Perhaps the most arresting instance occurs in Thomas Hobbes’s translation of the Odyssey (1675): “Ulysses looking sourly answered: ‘You bitch’” (Book xviii, l.
Bibliography Leach, Edmund. ” In Lenneberg, Eric H. ), New Directions in the Study of Language. T. Press, 1964. 11 ASS/ARSE ASS/ARSE These two terms are now phonetic variants, in American and British English respectively, of the ancient word for the backside, fundament, posteriors, or buttocks, animal or human. This part of the anatomy and its emissions are, of course, a fruitful area for vituperation. Arse, derived from late Anglo-Saxon ears, was in common use up to the eighteenth century, the medlar fruit having been called the open-ears from the earliest times.
S. all of ’em fascists” (Canto LXXIV). ” Another strategy of recent decades is to use the formula “the f- word” (from ca. 1973), “the “the n- word” (from ca. 1985), “the k- word” (from ca. 1985), and so on. These are not equally 4 ALIENS transparent, since they come from different speech-communities: the taboo words in question are fuck, nigger, and kaffir, respectively. The phonetic rendition of the initial letters is also used to generate other forms, such as the word fuck being abbreviated to eff (from ca.
An Encyclopedia of Swearing: The Social History of Oaths, Profanity, Foul Language, And Ethnic Slurs in the English-speaking World by Geoffrey Hughes